Luke Cage – Many White Fans Upset With Show’s Blackness

Luke Cage – Many White Fans Upset With Show’s Blackness

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Luke Cage – Many White Users On Twitter Upset With Show’s Blackness

Many white users on Twitter were upset with all of the BLACKNESS in Marvel’s Luke Cage on Netflix. It was so popular that the site crashed because there were so many users watching all at once. Some went as far as to say it was discrimination, not fair or even racist. Y’All CAN SHUT THE HECK UP!!! For decades (I’m speaking in terms of television) black people were stereotyped and underrepresented in movies and television. And still, to this day. Now we get a show that has a dark skinned lead, where every episode is titled after the legendary hip hop group “Gangstarr” and many other things that represent black America the right way and they want to complain. These white users on Twitter have a hell of a nerve. 

Luke Cage
Marvel Character Luke Cage played by Mike Colter

Black Entertainment Television doesn’t even rep black people the way it should because its owners are white and control all of the nonsense that comes from the network. Deal with it!!! A majority of what’s on tv does not represent us. But you wanna complain about one show??? And there will be more. The darker the black persons, the more feared they are to racists. And Luke Cage is a dark-skinned man who is bullet proof and takes no shit!!! Deal with it.

Nuwla contributor – Jason Joseph.
The images may be subject to copyright.

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Jason Joseph

Jason Joseph has been reading comic books since the 80’s. And collecting comic books now for about 15 years. Mr. Joseph is also a Special Education Technician, poet, husband and father of three.

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  • Karl Walters

    This series is very fitting and necessary. Finally there is a black comic book hero that reps reality without capes n panties…but It’s a shame that a fictional character has to be our “black Messiah”. Our so-called black leaders need to take notes

    • David Fenelus

      I love the show. What I like the most about the show is its blackness.

      • Karl Walters

        I concur😆

    • John J Rouse

      Just more of y’all trying to be like us…..but it’ll bomb….like all the slave movies do.

  • John J Rouse

    What’s is super power? Looting hair weave stores and robbing old ladies.

    His kyrptonite? Job application

    • David Fenelus

      “What’s is??” Obviously, grammar is your kryptonite.

      • John J Rouse

        It was suppose to be his, not is. But hey, at least I’m not black!!!!! And I thank the man above everyday for that.

        • David Fenelus

          Stop with the excuses.

  • John J Rouse

    The darker a black person is the lower their IQ is…..that is fact.

    • David Fenelus

      Yeah… In the Ku Klux Klan handbook. Save that rhetoric for your next Klan rally.

      • John J Rouse

        Darker individuals average higher levels of crime, sexual activity including HIV/AIDS, and lower IQ.

        1. Introduction
        Across species, pigmentation of the hair, skin, cuticle, feather and eye is mainly determined by the melanocortin system (a group of peptide hormones secreted by the pineal gland) and is one of the phenotypes that varies most among vertebrates (Ducrest, Keller, & Roulin, 2008). Individuals with darker pigmentation are found to be pleiotropically linked to higher levels of aggression, sexuality, and social dominance than individuals with lighter pigmentation. (Pleiotropy is the phenomenon whereby a single gene has two or more phenotypically different effects. A classic example of pleiotropy in human diseases is phenylketonuria [PKU], which can cause mental retardation and reduced hair and skin pigmentation.) Even before the term was proposed there were examples of distinct traits that seemed to be inherited together. In his classic 1866 paper, Mendel (1822–1884) listed his trait number three in peas as having brown seed coat, violet flowers, and axial spots. In humans, darker skin also correlates with lower IQ (Rushton & Jensen, 2005).

  • John J Rouse

    “ln his physicaI organization the typicaI West Coast ne5ro, whether Iiving in Africa or Iiving in America is as near the anthropoid apes as any of the savage races of mankind,—perhaps the nearest. He is untoId ages nearer than is the typicaI representative of the best in the white race. Taken as a whoIe we may say the same thing of him, when we take his mentaI and moraI quaIifications into consideration.”

    –from THE NE5RO – A MENACE TO AMERlCAN ClVlLlZATlON, R. W. ShufeIdt, M.D. MAJOR, MEDlCAL DEPARTMENT, UNlTED STATES ARMY, l907

  • John J Rouse

    Are BIacks Monkeys ?

    December 3l, 20l2
    Let’s bring in the New Year with an extremeIy provocative and controversiaI titIe. lt’s an uncomfortabIe notion that is strong, paIpabIe, and is going to stay, so it’s time to Iook at this question, rather than trying to avoid it or otherwise suppress it onIy for it come out.

    Let me speak for myseIf first. l grew up around bIacks (and Jews) and of course whites.

    l grew up in an environment of bIack music and anti-racist ideas. l don’t remember exactIy the first time l started to consider this, but it was probabIy seeing what bIack chiIdren were Iike at schooI, and that despite the deIuge of Ieft-wing, diversity promoting ideaIs, bIacks seemed to have very different academic and inteIIectuaI abiIities to whites, a very different demeanour that was essentiaIIy based on vioIence, or the threat of vioIence, and they appeared to Iack impressive Iong term goaIs.

    This coincided with them Iooking very different. l noticed bIacks used to insuIt themseIves about Iooking Iike monkeys, and referred to their own big Iips.

    We were toId that everyone was the same, and everyone was equaI. BIack cuIture (as it were), especiaIIy ‘street taIk’ was a highIy dominant form of expression for everyone. On the one hand, it was if everyone was aspiring to be bIack, but at the same time we were strongIy aware that bIacks as sociaI entities Iacked any serious attribute worth emuIating.

    ln fact their worId seemed a dismaI pIace, Iacking any higher quaIity, and exceIIing onIy in confIict.

    They smeIt different. StrongIy of an earthy soiIy smeII. And often their breath was Iike cabbages. You couIdn’t heIp noticing bIacks seemed to move differentIy to whites, had different postures, different expressiveness and responses to their environment. Their voices were Iouder and deeper, and their street Ianguage seemed to refIect something about their physicaI seIf.

    They seemed unabIe to hoId conversations with aII but the Iowest inteIIigent whites, who seemed to admire them for their free access to vioIence. They were preoccupied with petty things, and utterIy indifferent to the worId beyond.

    And of course they Iooked extremeIy different. To put it simpIy they Iooked, at a fresh unbiased gIance, decisively primitive. Some of them extremeIy so. lt was difficuIt to imagine how we were ‘aII the same’ against what l actuaIIy saw.

    ln generaI they seemed to share characteristics with other primates, with fIattened noses and dark skin. Some of them strongIy resembIed goriIIas. Some of them moved Iiked goriIIas with a Iumbering sway.

    Wherever bIacks were in abundance there was a sense of threat. BIacks couldn’t seem to restrain themseIves or see a need to, and there seemed to be some strong connection with the way bIacks Iooked and how they behaved.

    Later on, l kept noticing bIacks in the street had a habit of Iooking behind themseIves aII the time, as if to spot danger. This reminded me of wiId animaIs, and l recaII fiIms of monkeys doing the same. l wouId notice oIder (probabIy originaI immigrant) bIack women on the bus, rotate their head to the side and kind of sIump it on their neck to stare. Later on l wouId see goriIIas in wildIife videos make the same kinetic gesture to the camera. l wouId see goriIIas and ch1mps rub their heads vigorousIy. l wouId see bIacks do the same.

    BIacks had an expIicit non-verbaI vocabuIary of sounds, Iike kissing or sucking air through their teeth or grunting to express dispIeasure. Later l wouId become acuteIy aware of bIacks spitting in the street. BIacks apparentIy had a coIIection of non-verbaI communication.

    When bIacks were alone, they had a refIective mode, where they wouId taIk about some incident (often vioIence), or otherwise anti-sociaI behaviour, and wouId try to understand something (usuaIIy some aspect of their own state) amongst each other. Much Iater, l wouId recognise that inter-bIack conversations were nearIy aIways about a prior vioIent interaction, poor behaviour and rareIy much eIse.

    And l wouId notice bIacks often had an intense Iook on their face even when they were doing something reIatively simpIe, a kind of mixture of indignant and effort. lt was as if it took aII of their concentration. You see this Iook on the face of bIack athIetes.

    l noticed a Iot of bIacks had an open mouth at rest and they heId their mouths and heads differentIy. An open mouth (gape) is notoriousIy a symboI of Iow inteIIigence/Iow cuIture.

    So . . .

    The notion of discussing raciaI differences is aIso not one that has exactIy been encouraged in recent years.

    lndeed it has been activeIy discouraged.

    WhiIe on the one hand, any genuine goodwiII shown to bIacks from whites, has been returned with bIack anti-sociaI behaviour and a tidaI-wave of vioIent crime.

    On the other, we are overwheImed by a vigorous, yet often insidious tsunami of anti-racist materiaI in the media accompanied by IegisIation from government, institutionaI and IocaI counciI initiatives, judiciaI decisions (e.g Macpherson report on The MetropoIitan PoIice) and so on. SpeciaI attention must aIso be given to positive discrimination/affirmative action campaigns, designed to aIIow bIacks to compete economicaIIy and sociaIIy with whites.

    But does aII the above refIect an enIightened reaIity ? Or is it due to a catastrophic faiIure to accept it ?

    ProbabIy the best compendium l’ve seen on the bioIogicaI state of bIacks is a gripping underground book caIIed ”Erectus WaIks Among Us” written by a Mr. Richard D. FuerIe. lf you haven’t seen it, it is extremeIy worth reading.

    EWAU makes a strong case towards the notions that bIacks shouId be seen as a separate species within the H genus.

    The book gathers a great deaI of information and records some very impressive phenomena, some which re bIacks and other primates l wiII Iay out here:

    BIacks, Iike great apes and earIy humans, have some trends towards being ‘robust’, i.e have a thicker (craniaI) bones and higher muscIe mass.

    BIacks exhibit various other craniaI and spinaI phenomenon that are seen in other extinct hominoids Iike AustraIopithecus or H. Erectus. E.g. a more present saggitaI keeI, occipitaI bun, and of course (Iack of) nasaI ridge (e.g fIat noses in bIacks and goriIIas).

    The forum magnum, ”the opening through which the spinaI chord exits the skuII)” is more towards the rear in bIacks. “As quadrupedaI animaIs mature it moves to the rear, but in humans, who are bipedaI, it remains in its infant position (so the eyes are directed perpendicularIy to the spine).”

    BIacks strongly exhibit prognathism, (protrusion of the jaw), ”a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes” the degree of which faIIs between that of “Orangutans and whites.”

    BIacks have Iarger teeth, as other primates and ”the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angIe and project forward so that they meet the Iower at an angIe. (goriIIa’s teeth meet at an even greater angIe.) African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures.”

    BIacks have a sacraI index ”(breadth of the sacrum, the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the peIvis) as percentage of its Iength) that is cIosest to goriIIas.” This measurement is important as it gives cIues about Iocomotion (from knuckIe waIking to bidepaI) in primates.

    BIacks have Ionger Iimbs, cIoser to other great apes, and extinct hominoids.

    BIacks have different brains, with Iower voIumes and Iess compIex frontaI Iobes compared to whites and Asians.

    There’s a Iot on genetics in ”Erectus WaIks Among Us,” one paragraph l wouId Iike to refer to is this:

    ”AppIying that bit of inter-species egaIitarianism to humans and goriIIas, and using genetic distance as the standard to cIassify popuIations, since the genetic distance between the two species of goriIIa, G. gorilla and G. beringei, .04%, is nearIy six times Iess than the genetic distance between (sub-Saharan) Africans (Bantu) and Eurasians (EngIish), either Africans and Eurasians shouId be cIassified as two different species or goriIIas shouId be cIassified as a singIe species.”

    My own position is that bIacks unambiguousIy share physicaI traits with other primates, represent a significantIy more primitive group in generaI, and are sufficientIy distant to other human popuIations.

    l beIieve bIacks exist in a cognitive state who’s context makes sense onIy around other bIacks. But because of its simpIicity, it is strongIy not in the interests of other non-bIacks and that non-bIacks have to make significant aIIowances for bIack primitivism, often through seIf-deception.

    l see inter-bIack interaction as based on different phenomena to whites, and that is not a matter soIeIy down to lQ, (but reIated to it) because lQ itseIf cannot directIy measure primitivism per se, or other cognitive issues such as Iack of restraint and seIf-assessment, or differences in how bIacks interpret data and arrive at concIusions. Nor how emotions Iike Iove weigh in the bIack psyche.

    l don’t beIieve bIack popuIations in white countries can be reformed through education or sociaI programmes. l beIieve these programmes are an unfair burden on others, who are effectiveIy paying a vast price for bIacks’ primitivism. They are distorting and IargeIy a waste of time.

    James Watson, NobeI prize winner for his Iandmark work on DNA, caused a firestorm not Iong ago when he said the idea that ”equaI powers of reason were shared across raciaI groups was a deIusion.”

    “Dr. Watson toId The Sunday Times that he was ”inherentIy gIoomy about the prospect of Africa” because ”aII our sociaI poIicies are based on the fact that their inteIIigence is the same as ours – whereas aII the testing says not reaIIy”. He said there was a naturaI desire that aII human beings shouId be equaI but ”peopIe who have to deaI with bIack empIoyees find this not true.”

    ”Our wanting to reserve equaI powers of reason as some universaI heritage of humanity wiII not be enough to make it so.”

  • John J Rouse

    “Blacks are human weeds, reckless breeders, spawning… human beings who never should have been born.”

    – Planned Parenthood Founder, Margaret Sanger

  • John J Rouse

    “Wherever you find the ne5ro everything is going down around him, and wherever you find the white man you see everything around him improving.”

    –Robert E. Lee, to Col. Thomas H. Carter, May, 1865

  • John J Rouse

    Do pigmentation and the melanocortin system modulate aggression?

    In 40 species of wild vertebrates, darker pigmented individuals are more aggressive and sexually active. Cross fostering studies and pharmacological dose manipulations establish the role of the melatonin system. We review the human literature within and between populations and find similar relationships with pigmentation. Darker individuals average higher levels of crime, sexual activity including HIV/AIDS, and lower IQ.

    1. Introduction
    Across species, pigmentation of the hair, skin, cuticle, feather and eye is mainly determined by the melanocortin system (a group of peptide hormones secreted by the pineal gland) and is one of the phenotypes that varies most among vertebrates (Ducrest, Keller, & Roulin, 2008). Individuals with darker pigmentation are found to be pleiotropically linked to higher levels of aggression, sexuality, and social dominance than individuals with lighter pigmentation. (Pleiotropy is the phenomenon whereby a single gene has two or more phenotypically different effects. A classic example of pleiotropy in human diseases is phenylketonuria [PKU], which can cause mental retardation and reduced hair and skin pigmentation.) Even before the term was proposed there were examples of distinct traits that seemed to be inherited together. In his classic 1866 paper, Mendel (1822–1884) listed his trait number three in peas as having brown seed coat, violet flowers, and axial spots. In humans, darker skin also correlates with lower IQ (Rushton & Jensen, 2005).

    2. Animal studies
    Ducrest et al. (2008) reviewed data on over 40 wild vertebrate species showing that within each species, darker pigmented individuals averaged higher levels of aggression and sexual activity than lighter pigmented individuals, with a larger body mass, more resistance to stress, and greater physical activity when grooming. The relationship between coloring and behavioral dominance was robust across three species of mammal (African lion, soay sheep, and white-tailed deer), four species of fish (mosquito fish, guppy, green swordtail, and Arctic charr), four species of reptile (asp viper, adder, fence lizard, and spiny lizard), one amphibian species (spadefoot toad) and 36 species of bird.

    Similar effects of de-pigmentation have been found in laboratory rats, which are typically albinos with white coats and pink eyes. Black rats are more aggressive (and so also make poorer pets). However, black rats with white spots (from the “white spotting gene”) are calmer and more easily handled. A 15-year study of selection for tameness over 30 generations in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) found the percentage of piebald rats increased rapidly until over 70% had white bellies and about 50% had white feet and ankles or “socks” as they are called (Trut et al., 1997). In this experiment in rats, selection for tameness correlated with their depigmentation.

    Dogs too, show a relationship between coloring and behavior (Coren, 2011). Black dogs are more difficult to get adopted from shelters and are rated as less desirable as pets. Using computer images of black, brown, and yellow Labrador Retrievers to control for size, pose, and background, Coren found people had more negative attitudes to the black than to the brown or yellow retrievers. Observers rated the black dogs as less friendly, less likely to make a good pet, and to be more aggressive. Assuming that people’s attitudes and beliefs about dogs have some validity, this study provides further support for the pigmentation hypothesis.

    3. Human studies
    A first examination of whether melanin based pigmentation plays a role in human aggression and sexuality (as seen in non-human animals), is to compare people of African descent with those of European descent and observe whether darker skinned individuals average higher levels of aggression and sexuality (with violent crime the main indicator of aggression). Internationally, we found Blacks are over-represented in crime statistics relative to Whites and Asians. In Canada, a government commission found that Blacks were five times more likely to be in jail than Whites and 10 times more likely than Asians (Ontario, 1996). In Britain, the Home Office (1999) found that Blacks, who were 2% of the general population, made up 15% of the prison population. In the US, Taylor and Whitney (1999) analyzed the FBI Uniform Crime Statistics and National Crime Victimization Surveys from the US Department of Justice and found that since record keeping began at the turn of the century and throughout the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, African Americans engaged in proportionately more acts of violence than other groups. Since victims’ surveys tell a similar story, the differences in arrest statistics cannot just be attributed to police prejudice.

    Lynn (2002) reviewed the literature on psychopathy in childhood and adolescence and found that blacks averaged the highest rates including diagnosis with childhood conduct disorder, ADHD, being suspended or excluded from school, scoring low on tests of moral understanding, failing to live up to financial obligations such as paying back student loans, poor work commitment, recklessness (e.g., having traffic accidents), maintaining monogamous relationships, being responsible parents, engaging in domestic violence, and needing hospitalization for injuries sustained through altercations.

    Rushton and Whitney (2002) analyzed the 1993–1996 INTERPOL Yearbooks and found that across 100 countries, the rate of murder, rape, and serious assault is four times higher in African and Caribbean countries than elsewhere in the world. In violent crimes per 100,000 people, the rate for African countries was 149; for European, 42; and for Asian, 35. These results are similar to those carried out on other data sets from INTERPOL and the United Nations. They show the Black overrepresentation in violent crime to be a worldwide phenomenon.

    In regard to sexual behavior, differences between Blacks and Whites also support the pigmentation hypothesis. In an early international survey, Ford and Beach (1951) asked married couples how often they had sex each week. Pacific Islanders and Native Americans said from 1 to 4 times, US Whites answered 2–4 times, while Africans said 3 to over 10 times. Later surveys confirmed and extended these findings. [Rushton and Bogaert, 1987] and [Rushton and Bogaert, 1988] examined 41 items from the Kinsey data and found that Blacks not only had a higher rate of intercourse at an earlier age and with more partners, but also had more orgasms per act of coitus, spent more time thinking about sex, and had lower levels of sex guilt. Black females became pregnant more quickly indicated by speed of pregnancy after demobilization. Race predicted sexual behavior better than did socioeconomic status. Kinsey’s Black sample was college educated (from 1938 to 1963) and came from a middle class background (parentally intact, with high educational level) while one of the White samples was non-college educated and were lower on the same parental indices. Mixed-race (Black–White) adolescents reported an intermediate number of sexual partners compared to the two parental populations, even after controlling for socio-economic status (Rowe, 2002).

    The World Health Organization found the average intercourse per week for married couples in their twenties was, for American Blacks, 5; for American Whites, 4; and for the Japanese and Chinese in Asia, 2.5 (see Rushton, 2000, for a review of these studies). National surveys from Britain and the United States produce similar findings. A Los Angeles study found that the age of first sexual activity in high school students was 14.4 years for Blacks, 16.4 years for East Asians, with Whites in the middle. The percentage of students who were sexually active was 32% for East Asians and 81% for Blacks, with Whites again between the other two. In another study, White Americans reported more sex guilt than Black Americans and that sex had a weakening effect. Blacks said they had casual intercourse more and felt less concern about it than Whites.

    African descended people are over-represented in rates of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] such as syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydia, and HIV/AIDS (US Centers for Disease Control, 2009). Of the more than one million people living in the US with HIV/AIDS in 2007, almost half (46%) were Black. The Black–White difference in HIV/AIDS is found worldwide with high levels in sub-Saharan Africa, for example, Botswana (24.8%), South Africa (17.8%), Zambia (14.6%) and Zimbabwe (14.3%) (CIA World Factbook, 2010). The Black Caribbean is also disproportionately represented, despite limited recent contact between Africa and the Caribbean Islands. In the Caribbean, the rates approximate as high as they were in sub-Saharan Africa 20 years ago, for example, the Bahamas (3.1%), Haiti (1.9%), and Jamaica (1.7%).

    To slow the spread of HIV/AIDS, public health agencies give out free condoms. Condom size can affect comfort level and so whether one is used. Thus these agencies take note of penls size. The World Health Organization Guidelines specify a 49-mm-width condom for Asia, a 52-mm-width for North America and Europe, and a 53-mm-width for Africa. China is now making its own condoms – 49 mm.

    4. Evolutionary life history
    Life history theory (LHT) provides a framework for understanding the allocation of bodily resources for survival, growth and reproduction. Life history traits form a continuum from “fast” (r) strategies at one end to “slow” (K) strategies at the other end. The traits include age of gestation, litter size, total number of offspring, time between births, speed of physical growth, timing of puberty, age at first birth, infant mortality, degree of parental care, brain size, longevity, mate seeking, parenting, investing in kin and even social organization and altruism ( [MacArthur and Wilson, 1967], [Pianka, 1970] and [Wilson, 1975]). Unlike other approaches to explain behavior, life history theory predicts the co-variation of diverse clusters of biological and behavioral traits. Traits need to be harmonized rather than work independently. They work more effectively when organized in a coordinated system, fitting together like the pieces of a puzzle. Thus, we hypothesize that the relationships reviewed between darker pigmentation, higher levels of aggression and increased sexuality, go along with multifarious other characteristics.

    The “fast–slow” or “r–K” scale originates in population biology, with r and K as symbols denoting rates of reproduction and death. Together they measure population density and change. A high reproductive rate (r) typically requires little or no parental care (with a tiny percentage of offspring surviving), while a low reproductive rate (K) requiring intensive parental care (with a large percentage of offspring surviving). Oysters, producing 500 million eggs a year exemplify the r-strategy or “fast” life history. The great apes, producing one infant every 5 or 6 years (and providing extensive parental care), exemplify the K strategy or “slow” life history. All animals (and plants) are only relatively r and K. Thus rabbits are r-strategists compared to tigers, but K-strategists compared to frogs.

    Across species, studies show the predicted co-variation among the traits. For example, Smith (1989) found that among 24 primate species, age of eruption of first permanent molar correlated with length of gestation (0.89), body weight (0.89), age of weaning (0.93), birth interval (0.82), sexual maturity (0.86), and life span (0.85). The highest correlation was with brain size (0.98). Rushton (2004) found that across 234 mammalian species, a principal components analysis revealed a single r–K life history factor with loadings of brain weight (0.85); longevity (0.91); gestation time (0.86); birth weight (0.62); body length (0.63), litter size (0.54); age at first mating (0.73), and duration of lactation (0.67). The correlations remained high when controlling for differences in body size.

    Rushton (1985) applied r–K life history theory to human differences. He suggested that ‘one basic dimension – K – underlies much of the field of personality’ (p. 445). Diverse personality traits such as altruism, aggression, crime, intelligence, attachment, growth, health, longevity, sexuality, fertility, dizygotic twinning, infant mortality, and hormone levels were predicted to vary together culminating in a single, heritable, super-factor. Many predictions have been confirmed. For example, Rushton (1987) compared the mothers of one-egg twins (monozygotic or MZ) with those of two-egg twins (dizygotic or DZ). The mothers of DZ twins averaged higher on r-strategy traits including earlier pregnancies, shorter gestation periods, shorter menstrual cycles, less spacing between births, more siblings and half-siblings, more divorces, and shorter lifespans.

    Ellis (1987) drew a distinction between intentional victimizing acts in which someone is obviously harmed and non-victimizing acts such as prostitution and drug-taking. He conceptualized victimizing behavior as the opposite of altruism and therefore r-selected. Victimizers tended to have the following r-strategy demographics: many siblings and half-siblings, less stable pair bonds, parents with less stable pair bonds, shorter gestation periods, more premature births, earlier age at first sexual intercourse, more sexual promiscuity (or at least a stated preference for such), a lower investment in offspring (higher rates of child abandonment, neglect, and abuse), and a shorter life expectancy.

    Behavior genetic studies show that all these traits are about 50% heritable and that many are genetically linked ( [Figueredo and Rushton, 2009] and [Rushton, 1995]). For example, not only are sexuality and delinquency heritable but genetically they go together. Among adolescents, 36–49% of the sexual intimacy engaged in by one sibling was predicted by the amount of delinquency engaged in by the other sibling (Rowe, Rodgers, Meseck-Bushey, & St. John, 1989). A subsequent study found that individuals with high scores on measures of sexuality and delinquency correlated positively with measures of impulsivity, deceitfulness, and rebelliousness, and negatively with those of parental affection and encouragement of achievement (Rowe & Flannery, 1994).

    Race differences are found on the r–K continuum. Africans average toward the r end, devoting resources to mating effort and producing more children but providing less parental care. East Asians average toward the K end, producing fewer offspring but investing more resources in them. Europeans average intermediately. Another three-way race difference is two-egg twinning, which is more numerous in Africans than in Europeans or East Asians (i.e., 16, 8, and 4 per 1000 twin births, respectively). Another is that Blacks have the most testosterone (Ellis & Nyborg, 1992), which helps to explain their higher levels of athletic ability (Entine, 2000). Testosterone acts as a “master switch.” It goes everywhere in the body and affects many bio-behavioral systems. It affects self-concept, aggression, altruism, crime, and sexuality, not just in men, but in women too. Testosterone controls muscle mass and the deepening of the voice in the teenage years. It also explains why Black women have the most premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and East Asians the least.

    A path-breaking study by Templer and Arikawa (2006) analyzed data from 129 countries and found a remarkably high correlation of 0.92 between skin color and national IQ. Skin color was measured using data from Biasutti (1967) estimated for the world’s indigenous people at the time of Columbus’s first voyage in 1492 and average national intelligence scores from Lynn and Vanhanen (2002). (Templer and Arikawa’s rationale for using the year 1492 to define skin color in indigenous populations came from the authoritative tome by Cavalli-Sforza, Menzoni, and Piazza (1994) which mapped human genetic diversity.) The relationship between skin color and national IQs replicated separately within the three continents showing the generality of the phenomena: -0.86 for Africa; -0.55 for Asia; and -0.63 for Europe. Templer and Arikawa conceptualized skin color as a multigenerational adaptation to the cold winters encountered as people migrated north “out of Africa” over the last 70,000 years.

    5. Coonclusion
    We have found, in both human and non-human animals, that darker pigmentation is associated with higher levels of aggression and sexuality (and in humans with lower IQ). Lighter pigmentation is associated with the slow reproductive strategy (K) including lower birth rates, less infant mortality, less violent crime, less HIV/AIDS, plus higher IQ, higher income, and greater longevity.

    The correlations between human pigmentation, aggression, and sexuality (and IQ), is further supported by the anthropological and sociological research on “pigmentocracies” (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2006). A pigmentocracy is a society in which status hierarchies are based largely on skin color, with lighter skin denoting higher status and darker skin lower status. Although these are typically explained by the legacy of slavery and imperialism, and although cultural and environmental factors undoubtedly play a substantial role (Rushton & Jensen, 2005), we have focused on genetic pleiotropy to explain the much less known relationship between skin color and behavior.

    Life history theory (LHT) may explain why darker individuals are more aggressive and sexually active and why these traits co-vary with longevity, birth rate, infant mortality, speed of maturation, and many other characteristics ( [Templer, 2008] and [Templer and Rushton, 2011]). The melanocortin system is a physiological coordinator of pigmentation and life history traits. Skin color provides an important marker placing hormonal mediators such as testosterone in broader perspective.

    We recognize that this paper provides only a first approximation to what may become a workable explanation of melanin and its correlates. There are complex issues that need to be resolved. For example, skin coloration in humans is labile, showing much unexplained variation such as the African Khoi-san in the Kalahari Desert who display light pigmentation. Nonetheless, we believe our data reviews point in a direction that could greatly advance knowledge. Although the traits do not always go in lockstep, our data and analyses raise new research directions that should be seriously explored.